Gram Staining Lab Report Pdf

The biochemical tests were chosen from the unknown identification tables that were in the lab manual. Type of analysis performed (detailed laboratory analysis methods should be maintained by the lab). Stabilized Iodine Reagent. In the first step the smear is stained with basic dye crystal violet (Primary stain. Place a coverslip onto the slide. Microscope Slides. Gram Stain Report Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to determine the shape and Gram stain of the bacteria under a microscope. (Kits are available commercially, or formulas for reagents are listed in Appendix B. Plates (5% sheep blood, Columbia with colistin and nalidixic acid, MacConkey and chocolate agars) were incubated for 48 h in 5% CO 2 and read after 24 h and 48 h. Introduction : 4 • The Gram staining • The Gram staining method, named after Hans Christian Gram. It has been demonstrated to cause a wide variety of infections; however, it is most commonly recognized for its role as one of the organisms responsible for bacterial vaginosis (BV). Flood slide with crystal (or gentian) violet- 60 seconds. Procedures. Procedure for Lipid Staining 1. Ticagrelor and its major metabolites (M5 AR-C133913, M7, M8 AR-C124910) 5 were synthetized and tested in time-kill assays against gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (MRSE) (ATCC 35984); methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25904, ATCC 6538); glycopeptide intermediate S aureus (GISA) Mu-50 (ATCC 700699); methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA. The age of the patient is a clue to the technologist as to the possible agent causing the illness. It was developed by Hans Christian Gram; a Danish physician, in 1884. What is Gram Staining: Dr. Report CSF Herpes Simplex DNA 81370. Our entire perception of gram-positive and gram-negative walls ultimately relies on the response of bacteria to Gram staining. The cells are colored red or violet so as to distinguish its group. Aseptically swab across the sampling surface while rotating the swab. Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups: gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups. HLA Class II Antibody Specificity Phenotype Panel 86831. GRAM STAIN TECHNIQUE Page 3 of 6 Gram Kleuring. 16th Street, Suite B Indianapolis, IN 46202-2203 (317) 921-5500 SEND REPORT TO:. Six cases where the original Gram stain report was Gram-positive cocci and the culture yielded Gramnegative bacilli, 3 of which were Acinetobacter species. all one type, small, diffuse, etc. However, it may be indicated if the patient is being evaluated for response to therapy and there is a complicating co-existing urinary abnormality including structural or functional abnormalities, calculi, foreign bodies, or ureteral/renal stents or there is clinical or laboratory evidence of failure to respond as described in Indications 1 and 2. 3: Gram positive cocci Fig. SEROLOGY 13. Decorative Fountains and Waterfalls. Gram staining differentiates bacteria by the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls. report, we describe our investigation of the first docu- copeptides, we reviewed the hospitals’ laboratory records to iden-tify any S. A system must parallel-process stain incubations for turnaround times to be acceptable. The links on this page provide the Virtual Microbiology Classroom documents, web pages and videos useful in preparing for this lab. The gram stain, originally developed in 1884 by Christian Gram, is probably the most important procedure in all of microbiology. If the film will be stained with Wright’s stain, it does not need to be fixed. The Gram stain is the most widely used staining procedure in bacteriology. South Afr J Infect Dis 61 2015;30(2) Brief Report: A comparative evaluation of the Gram stain and India ink stain YMC Coovadia 1, S Mahomed , A Dorasamy1, C. One predicts that if an organism grows on MAC it is most likely Gram negative, but this has to be confirmed with a Gram stain, as a few Gram positive organisms will grow on Mac plates. [Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: Photomicrograph revealing the histopathology in an acute case of gonococcal urethritis using gram-stain technique US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/ Joe Millar [Citation ends]. Bacteria that are non-responsive to this technique are known as gram insensitive. , for performing experimental works, research activities and investigative procedures. The gram negative bacterium grew on the agar and a gram stain was carried out. Methylene Blue is a synthetic basic dye. There are only two cases of empyema ever reported due to this organism. The investigators combined the routine Gram staining procedure of positive vials with the high sensitivity of the acridine orange staining, and inoculated positive media onto urea slants. Gram Stain All Categories Africa America American History Ancient Art Asia Biographies Book Reports Business Creative Writing Dance Economics English Europe History Humanities Literature Medicine Middle East Miscellaneous Music and Movies Philosophy Poetry & Poets Psychology Religion Science Shakespeare Social Issues Speeches Sports Technology. Gram was actually using dyes on human cells, and found that bacteria preferentially bind some dyes. Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative). The number of T, B and NK cells, and granzyme B concentration were within normal ranges. See Section 3. View Lab Report - Gram staining lab report-2. Patient Specimens B. The gram stain showed a result of red, gram negative rods. Next, a urea, maltose, and nitrate test were conducted to further narrow down the possibilities of bacteria. Bone marrow aspirate showed an increased number of histiocytes phagocyting red cells and platelets. It has to be one of the most repeated procedures done in any lab. (Kits are available commercially, or formulas for reagents are listed in Appendix B. Examples of tests are carboxyhemoglobin, chest x-ray, culture, EIA, gram stain, ICP/MS,. 7%) of 8,253 patients with positive blood cultures the Gram stain was misread, resulting in major errors that fell into three categories: 1. hands and clothing of the laboratory personnel by settle plate method, surface swab method, fingerprint impressions and sweep plate method respectively using pre incubated Mac-conkey’s and Blood agar plates, incubated overnight at 37⁰c. In the lab, vigorously shake or vortex the swab for 10 seconds, to release bacteria from the swab tip. 5 grams of erythromycin per pound of food, fed for 10 to 14 days. aureus: –Gram stain –Catalase test –Coagulase test –DNAse test –Oxidase test 4. Acridine orange is a fluorescent stain that improves organism detection, as it is more sensitive than the Gram stain (1, 2). NORMAL REPORT 56/07/24 01/01/60 M 238−992−9213−0 90000999 SAMPLE REPORT Patient Last Name Account Phone Number Route Account Address Tests Ordered Anaerobic/Aerobic/Gram Stain TESTS RESULT FLAG UNITS REFERENCE INTERVAL LAB Anaerobic/Aerobic/Gram Stain Anaerobic Culture Final Report 01 Result 1 No anaerobic growth in 72 hours. What is Gram Staining: Dr. txt) or read online for free. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a toothpick. TSI test to confirm E. The Gram stain is a differential stain. Place slide with heat fixed smear on staining tray. Analytic Time Defines the amount of time it takes the laboratory to setup and perform the test. report, we describe our investigation of the first docu- copeptides, we reviewed the hospitals’ laboratory records to iden-tify any S. Although rarely pathogenic in an immunocompetent host, it can cause severe opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Another differential stain technique is the acid‐fast technique. One predicts that if an organism grows on MAC it is most likely Gram negative, but this has to be confirmed with a Gram stain, as a few Gram positive organisms will grow on Mac plates. Introduction : 4 • The Gram staining • The Gram staining method, named after Hans Christian Gram. A Gram stain is first performed to guide the way, which should show typical Gram-positive bacteria, cocci, in clusters. There was a thrombosis of the left internal carotid artery with infarction of the left cerebral hemisphere. Principle of Acid-Fast Stain. Ann Arbor, MI (LAB 08) - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-4 Atlanta, GA (LAB 07) - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-1 Baton Rouge, LA (LAB 25) - NVLAP Lab Code 200375-0 Beltsville, MD (LAB 19) - NVLAP Lab Code 200293-0 Boston, MA (LAB 13) - NVLAP Lab Code 101147-0 Buffalo, NY (LAB 14) - NVLAP Lab Code 200056-0 Carle Place, NY (LAB 06) - NVLAP Lab Code 101048-10 Charlotte, NC (LAB 41) - NVLAP Lab Code 200841-0. Identification of S. Please note that the quality of the smear (too heavy or too light cell concentration) will affect the Gram Stain results. Gram Staining Formal Lab Report Miranda King Intro Microbiology Dr. • If a patient has been discharged from the hospital and the gram stain shows gram positive cocci or gram positive bacilli, the result will not be considered as a critical value. We demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR on DNA extracted from vaginal Gram stain slides to estimate the presence and relative abundance of specific bacterial pathogens. It is called a differential stain since it differentiates between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Experiment on performing acid-fast staining of a bacteria to find out whether it is acid-fast or non-acid-fast! Purpose: Most of the bacteria can be stained, either by simple basic staining or by gram staining, as their cells take up stains easily. M/Tu, September 7/8, 2020 No Lab Sections – Labor Day Holiday! W/Th, September 9, 2020. Wet prep 4. After decolourisation stop , a counter stain is used to impart pink colour to the gram negative m/o. In the Bradford assay, we used the dye Coomassie G-250 which binds to proteins mostly at arginine but also at tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine and phenylalanine. The Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain • A better understanding of the basic chemistry of the H and E stain will provide the attendee with: –A greater knowledge of how to optimize or modify the technique to achieve the results desired –A greater knowledge of how to solve staining issues. Hendrickson 13 September 2017 Purpose For the purpose of the gram staining experiment was to learn this specific type of staining technique, as well as learn how distinguish the differences between Gram positive and Gram negative stains. Principle of Acid-Fast Stain. For Microbiology, we offer a wide range of fluorescent dyes and assays kits to stain bacteria, yeast and fungi, including dyes to assess cell viability and bacterial gram stain type. Live or killed bacteria (gram-negative or gram-positive) can be stained with 12-15 ug/mL Hoechst or DAPI in PBS or 150 mM NaCl for 30 minutes at room temperature. Start studying Micro Lab - Report #15 - Gram Staining. this is a negative completed test. This is determined using a Gram Stain process. On the first two challenges 77-73% of technicians read Gram staining correctly while morphology was read correctly by 56-53%. The pathogen growing on the usual anaerobic media in the form of a lawn, wherein the culture is not always successful successful. Here, we report the improvement in performance by CL techs after 5 challenges. Initially a gram stain of the microorganism was made to determine its morphology and if it was gram positive or gram negative. This test differentiate the bacteria into Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, which helps in the classification and differentiations of microorganisms. baumanii using the VITEK-2 Gram-Negative Identification test (GNI) card (bioMérieux. Box 305130, Nashville,TN 37230 (USPS) OR 630 Hart Lane, Nashville,TN 37216 (FedEx, UPS, courier delivery) Richard Steece, PhD, D(ABMM), Public Health Laboratory Director Main Line: (615) 262-6300. The sections required vary from laboratory to laboratory but the standard outline for most lab reports in the biological science include: title, your name, purpose of the experiment, methods, results, discussion and conclusion, references. Discover Labster's award-winning virtual lab catalog with simulations in Biology, Chemistry, and more. Stain Protocols - BIOL 2420 Smith - 2010 Page 2 of 4 Gram Stain 1. However, it may be indicated if the patient is being evaluated for response to therapy and there is a complicating co-existing urinary abnormality including structural or functional abnormalities, calculi, foreign bodies, or ureteral/renal stents or there is clinical or laboratory evidence of failure to respond as described in Indications 1 and 2. Prepare a bacterial smear from a pure culture 1. It is used to distinguish between gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria. The gram stain showed a result of red, gram negative rods. Pipettes are most commonly used in molecular biology, analytical chemistry as well as medical tests. Laboratory Testing Guidelines 13 A. Reagents of Gram Stain Because the Gram stain reaction is more widely used and studied than any other stain, it is also the most open to variation in protocol. Confirm your staining protocols are controlled and efficient with prefixed quality control slides. The Gram stain is the most widely used staining procedure in bacteriology. The links on this page provide the Virtual Microbiology Classroom documents, web pages and videos useful in preparing for this lab. Free Online Library: Three Rapid Screening Tests for Cryptococcus Neoformans in the Laboratory. aureus to grow, producing yellow-colored colonies as a result of mannitol fermentation and subsequent drop in. The condensation water is turbid. 2440 or 866. There are only two cases of empyema ever reported due to this organism. Distilled Water. Gram staining is a method of staining bacteria involving crystal violet dye, iodine, and the counterstain safranin. Staining: After dehemoglobinisation, dip the thick smear in JSB II stain two to three times. Microbiology Gram Stain Lab Report - Free download as PDF File (. We first tested Gram stained slides spiked with a mix of 108 cfu/ml of Escherichia coli and 105 cfu/ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Experiment 3: Simple Stain Experiment 4: Gram Stain Lecture 2 Microscopy pdf ppt Lecture 2 Staining pdf ppt. Additional blood for cultures (one aerobic bottle, one anaerobic bottle) was drawn the day after admission, and the aerobic bottle turned positive after 60 h, with small Gram-negative rods seen upon Gram staining. Screening method The absence of leukocytes and bacteria in a Gram-stained smear of a clean-catch urine sample prepared as described above is good evidence that the urine is not infected. Although simple stains are useful, they do not reveal details about the bacteria other than morphology and arrangement. Second, the isolate is cultured on mannitol salt agar , which is a selective medium with 7–9% NaCl that allows S. The Grams tab (NOTE: “Grams” is an abbreviation for “Gram Stain”) in the left pane of the Antibiogram screen allows you to search for antibiogram data by Gram Stain (A common microbiology lab stain technique used in conjunction with light microscopy for. Given that individual gram stains take two to four minutes each, a lab running more than 50 gram stains per day cannot wait for the sequential analysis of so many slides. Monospot Test 2. Affiliations: 1: Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742; 2: currently residing in Matthews, NC 28104, formerly of Waukesha County Technical College, Pewaukee, WI, 53072. The process and understanding of simple gram staining has been introduced in this lab experiment. Refrigerate until and during courier transport. When reporting the gram stain results, do not quantify microorganisms seen, list only cell types present. THE GRAM STAIN. The gram stain procedure was performed as directed in the lab manual (1). Student Procedures. The main focus of the Logan lab is the development of new renewable energy technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, for achieving an energy sustainable water infrastructure. Medical Laboratory Professionals What a Gram stain can identify 2. HLA Chimerism Initial Post Transplant Assessment 81265. Note also the location of endospores if present (central or terminal), their shape (spherical or. Six cases where the original Gram stain report was Gram-positive cocci and the culture yielded Gramnegative bacilli, 3 of which were Acinetobacter species. Excessive rinsing during the staining procedure D. Report Findings and Make Recommendations VI. The sections required vary from laboratory to laboratory but the standard outline for most lab reports in the biological science include: title, your name, purpose of the experiment, methods, results, discussion and conclusion, references. Bacteria that stain purple with the Gram staining procedure are termed Gram-positive; those that stain pink are said to be Gram-negative. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of Gram staining: List of Advantages of Gram Staining. To identify our isolate after obtaining the pure culture, we performed many different tests. Correct use and care of the laboratory equipment is considered a fundamental part of good laboratory technique. Daily review of selected Gram stains by supervisory personnel may help. Gardnella has an unusual gram-positive cell wall structure that causes bacteria of this genus to stain gram -negative or gram-variable (Sadhu et al 1989). Apply mordant Gram's iodine- the iodine combines with the crystal violet in the cell to form a crystal violet-iodine (CV-1 complex). Heat Fixation: required prior to staining 3. Cell and molecular biology of bacteria and their viruses, including applications in medici View more. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of Gram staining: List of Advantages of Gram Staining. Assessment One week after the study interventions, the participants took an 11-question quiz ( S1 Quiz ), which assessed their understanding of Gram stain procedure, its significance, and interpretation. Kidney: recommended for routine evaluation of renal biopsies due to basement membrane staining; also useful to diagnose renal cell carcinoma (stains glycogen, removed by diastase) Liver: routine stain for hepatocytes (PAS without diastase); also stains inclusions of alpha-1-antitrypsin disease. While Gram staining is a valuable diagnostic tool in both clinical and research settings, not all bacteria can be definitively classified by this technique. Our entire perception of gram-positive and gram-negative walls ultimately relies on the response of bacteria to Gram staining. Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups: gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Final Report 3+ Isolates consistent with microorganisms normally encountered in the upper respiratory tract. Check out the reaction on MacConkey to figure out whether or not you've got a lactose fermenter. JSB II stain: 1 g Eosin is dissolved in 500 ml tap water. 2 If growth in a vessel cannot be reliably determined by Gram stain, subculture the contents of the test vessel by aseptically transfering 1. Module: The Gram Stain Procedure - click “start lab” From a liquid Module: The Gram Stain. Microbiology Laboratory 1400 Jackson Street, Room K422 Denver, CO 80206 SHIP TO: ADxReq-10 Micro (04/2020) Raw Specimen OR Culture Medium: Submitted By Phone Fax Submitter Specimen # Actual Specimen Collection Date Collection Time 11. 74 g of potassium acid phosphate (KH 2 PO 4) are added to 1000 ml of distilled water or filtered tap water. Gram staining is the most important staining technique in microbiology. Gram staining, a mainstay of bacterial meningitis diagno-sis, is widely available, inexpensive and rapid [1]. Gram-negative bacteria 4: Bacteria that appear pinkish or red when subjected to a laboratory staining method known as the Gram stain test, which is used to differentiate categories of bacteria. Confirm your staining protocols are controlled and efficient with prefixed quality control slides. 50% Acetone/Alcohol Decolorizer. 0 mL of fresh test media. In the microbiology field, extensive staining techniques are used. The procedure is named for the person who developed the technique, Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram. Gardnella has an unusual gram-positive cell wall structure that causes bacteria of this genus to stain gram -negative or gram-variable (Sadhu et al 1989). Microbiology lab report : 1- introduction (Gram Staining) 2-Requirements (Reagents) 3-Method 4-Observations • Contents : - 3 4. Gram stains are made of representatives of all colonies on the plates and the results are recorded on the Microbiological Monitoring Sample Log. This method is used for those microorganisms which are not staining by simple or Gram staining method, particularly the member of genus Mycobacterium, are resistant and can only be visualized by acid-fast staining. Created Date: 8/5/2019 12:13:18 PM. The well-established method for manual microorganism identification to the species level, bioMérieux’s API identification products are test kits for identification of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and yeast. View / Download. o Positive antigen test for N. In most cases, Gram stains are performed on biopsy or bodily fluids when infection is suspected, and they yield results much more quickly than other methods, such as culturing. Bio 139 Labs #9 and #10: Gram's Stain & KOH test. Of their laboratory's criteria for Gram stain interpretation of various elements. Identification of an Unknown Bacterium and Writing Up a Report A standard part of nearly all lab courses in introductory microbiology is an activity wherein the student must use everything that has been learned in the course to identify and unknown bacterial culture. Bacteria that are non-responsive to this technique are known as gram insensitive. Introduction Acid Fast Stain (for mycobacteria). This Conserve O Gram provides general guidelines for caring for these materials. Gram Stain Report Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to determine the shape and Gram stain of the bacteria under a microscope. Prepare a Gram Stain using the cytocentrifuge. 74 g of potassium acid phosphate (KH 2 PO 4) are added to 1000 ml of distilled water or filtered tap water. meningitidis. Gram staining allows for the categorization of most bacteria into two broad structural classes: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The gram stain from one of the more isolated colonies revealed purple coccyx, a confirmed gram positive result, which narrowed the list of possibilities down to three bacteria. along with the unknown to make sure that the Gram stain reaction was done correctly. The counter stain used in the Gram stain is Safranin (pink). The Gram stain is a differential stain, as opposed. Gram Stain Gram stain pure strain cultures to determine whether Gram negative or Gram positive. Apply mordant Gram's iodine- the iodine combines with the crystal violet in the cell to form a crystal violet-iodine (CV-1 complex). The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the performance of inventory management for laboratory commodities in public hospitals in the Jimma zone. Domestic Hot Water Systems Emergency Management and Best Practices C. However, the culture was. This should be a thin, not milky, suspension or it will not stain properly. Affiliations: 1: Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742; 2: currently residing in Matthews, NC 28104, formerly of Waukesha County Technical College, Pewaukee, WI, 53072. University. Second, the isolate is cultured on mannitol salt agar , which is a selective medium with 7–9% NaCl that allows S. The presence of Gm+ rods or Gm- cocci will be annotated in the Remarks column. Refrigerate until and during courier transport. Although simple stains are useful, they do not reveal details about the bacteria other than morphology and arrangement. Gram-negative bacteria 4: Bacteria that appear pinkish or red when subjected to a laboratory staining method known as the Gram stain test, which is used to differentiate categories of bacteria. The reason for staining bacteria is due to the fact that most bacteria are transparent and cannot be seen through the microscope. Susceptibility tests. Day 1: Gram stain; streak plates Day 2: Read plate results; Gram stain; quad plate Day 3: Read results Lab Report due November 21 Post-Lab 6 Anaerobic Bacterial Infections: November 22 Exercise 7: Sexually Transmitted Infections Day 1: Read Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, RPR, HPV and HSV tests Lab Report due December 5 Post-Lab 7 STI: December 6. Waiting to hear about test results can be very stressful - and sometimes it can take a while to get lab results back. Thursdays 8:00-10:50. Because Enterococci and Staphylococci can sometimes look similar in Gram stains done from a plate culture, perform a catalase test on your unknown to help differentiate an Enterococcus from a Staphylococcus (see Lab 8). bacteria that allows visualization of morphology (cocci, rods,. Here we report the successful isolation and purification of SARS-CoV-2 in BSL-3 laboratory and revealed the whole viral architecture of SARS-CoV-2 by transmission electron microscopy (both negative staining and cryo-EM). Laboratory Testing Guidelines 13 A. pdf This video shows the procedure for conducting the Gram stain. Discovered by H. HLA Chimerism Initial Post Transplant Assessment 81265. Simple stains use basic dyes which are. Given that individual gram stains take two to four minutes each, a lab running more than 50 gram stains per day cannot wait for the sequential analysis of so many slides. Tilt the slide slightly and gently rinse with tap water or distilled water using a wash bottle. , serogrouping). A 69-year-old Japanese woman with pernicious anaemia presented with a 3-day history of fever and watery diarrhoea. Food microbiology practicals, Dept. Gram positive and negative flowcharts View or download a copy of the flowchart diagrams below: Gram Positive Organisms Flowchart (PDF) Gram Negative Organisms Flowchart (PDF). Bacteria that stain purple with the Gram staining procedure are termed Gram-positive; those that stain pink are said to be Gram-negative. It is called a differential stain since it differentiates between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Microscope Slides. Heat slide gently from below with small Bunsen burner until steam is seen. Although the difference between the unwashed and washed cultures was not remarkable, there was a slight reduction in the number of bacterial colonies present on the plates that were inoculated with our clean hands. 5 grams of erythromycin per pound of food, fed for 10 to 14 days. (2 pts) What difference between bacteria results in the differential staining observed in the Gram stain procedure? 4. Usually the growth is absent not just inhibited a little. Staining problems. ” •“Do not use staining morphology, colony morphology,. Krishna Patel. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella. Other off-site locations, refrigerate sample during storage and transport to SCH Microbiology. LIMITATIONS Colonization with gram negative bacilli and other nosocomial pathogens are common in patients with endotracheal tubes. Since you can't identify bacteria from a Gram stain, why might a physician perform a Gram stain on a sample before prescribing an antibiotic? 4. The Gram‐negative bacteria subsequently stain with the safranin dye, the counterstain, used next. Next, the MacConkey and EMB tests were performed to detect if the bacterium was an enteric and fermenter of lactose. Result date: Indicate the date that each laboratory result was reported, usually to the submitting physician, clinic, etc. The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique. Gram stain Morphology: Gram-negative rod, straight or slightly curved Colony Morphology: Poorly growing colonies after 24 hours incubation. Identification of S. Eyram Ganu Gram Staining Introduction In this lab experiment, we were introduced to the technique of gram. The growth on the blood agar plate was confirmed as A. The Gram stain is the most widely used staining procedure in bacteriology. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. See full list on microscopemaster. HLA Chimerism Initial Post Transplant Assessment 81265. In this procedure living, potentially pathogenic bacteria are smeared on the glass slide and allowed to dry. The isolated bacteria are stained by various methods depending upon the bacteria in focus. 5% basic fuchsin or TB carbolfuchsin ZN stain (Difco). o Positive antigen test for N. Gram smears should be discarded in the autoclave bin 12. It was also understood that reaction of a bacterial cell to the Gram stain is determined by the decolourization step. Wait 1-2. Field Size Calculation / Cell Size Estimation (Video) Unit 3. If the organism is a Gram-negative, nonspore-forming rod and produces gas in the lactose tube, then it is positive that coliforms are present in the water sample. Rapid Influenza A & B Antigen test 6. Another differential stain technique is the acid‐fast technique. Gram staining detects a fundamental difference in the cell wall composition of bacteria. During a bacteria culture test, a sample will be taken from your blood, urine, skin, or other part of your body. To a Gram positive cell the counter stain stains the cell, but the cells are already so heavily stained by crystal violet that the addition of pink does not change the dark purple color of the cells. Module: The Gram Stain Procedure - click “start lab” From a liquid Module: The Gram Stain. melitensis was reported in ticks. 1 Presented By : Karim A. Gram-stained smears showed gram-negative bacilli in long chains. gram staining procedure, the gram-positive bacteria appear blue to purple and gram negative cells appear pink to red. 8L 9296637 9317740 12/05/19 06/30/21 12/02/19 05/31/21 212539 BD BBLTM Gram Stain Kit 0007261 01/29/20 06/30/21 0007255 01/10/20 05/31/21 0028309 02/11/20 03/30/21 For the Attention of: Microbiology Lab Manager/Risk Manager Description of the problem and health hazard(s):. growth by conducting a Gram stain on an aliquot of the culture. Usually the growth is absent not just inhibited a little. Scrape lightly. Microscope Slides. View / Download. Laboratory perspective of gram staining and its significance in investigations of infectious diseases Yunusa Thairu 1, Idris Abdullahi Nasir 1, Yahaya Usman 2 1 Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria 2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. Note also the location of endospores if present (central or terminal), their shape (spherical or. Field Size Calculation / Cell Size Estimation (Video) Unit 3. Colonial morphology and endospore stain to confirm Bacillus cereus. The gram stain showed a result of red, gram negative rods. The results showed leukopenia for which bone marrow. Correct identification on this is key. Simple stains use basic dyes which are positively charged. Hendrickson 13 September 2017 Purpose For the purpose of the gram staining experiment was to learn this specific type of staining technique, as well as learn how distinguish the differences between Gram positive and Gram negative stains. Because Enterococci and Staphylococci can sometimes look similar in Gram stains done from a plate culture, perform a catalase test on your unknown to help differentiate an Enterococcus from a Staphylococcus (see Lab 8). DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY 1 Patient: Alison DOB: 01/02/1995. ACP originally published this guide in 1988. Introduction : 4 • The Gram staining • The Gram staining method, named after Hans Christian Gram. South Afr J Infect Dis 61 2015;30(2) Brief Report: A comparative evaluation of the Gram stain and India ink stain YMC Coovadia 1, S Mahomed , A Dorasamy1, C. stain , purple. Growth at different temperatures was observed in MRS broth after incubation at 10°C and 15°C for 14 days and at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45,. Refrigerate until and during courier transport. In the lab, vigorously shake or vortex the swab for 10 seconds, to release bacteria from the swab tip. Gram smears should be discarded in the autoclave bin 12. Being Gram-negative bacteria, E. Procedure for Lipid Staining 1. Discover Labster's award-winning virtual lab catalog with simulations in Biology, Chemistry, and more. paraphrophilus) is classically associated with infective endocarditis. Trichomonas is read by immediate wet mount and if negative, the culture pouch is inoculated. Microbiology - Lecture notes - 1. Waiting to hear about test results can be very stressful - and sometimes it can take a while to get lab results back. The Gram staining test for bacteria is one of the most important tests in microbiology and is often one of the first tests performed in the identification of bacteria. doc November 7,,, 2001 Mollleculll ar Celll lll Physiiiolll ogy Protocolll Results As shown below, organisms that retain the violet-iodine complexes after washing in ethanol stain purple and are termed Gram-positive, those that lose this complex stain red from the safranin counter stain are termed. It is the first time to image the near native SARS-CoV-2, the. Methods: Women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, as part of a multicentre study, were diagnosed as having BV if three or more of the following criteria were present. Next, the MacConkey and EMB tests were performed to detect if the bacterium was an enteric and fermenter of lactose. Candida albicans in a section of lung, confirming an invasive Candida pneumonia. Microbiology Gram Stain Lab Report - Free download as PDF File (. Also, be certain to report any intracellular bacteria observed. LAB PROJECT #3: Differential Staining of Bacterial Cells Students prepare bacterial smears and preform Gram, Acid-fast (Ziehl-Neelsen), and Endospore Stains. Gram stain is more sensitive than culture, especially if patient is on antibiotics GMS stain highlights the filamentous bacteria, which are not visualized by H&E stain (Infect Drug Resist 2014;7:183) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid probes are being developed for faster and more accurate identification. Gram staining proved to be a very good method for observing the bacterial cellular features and hence, differences between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were clarified. The Gram stain is a type of differential stain that allows a (micro)biologist to. The Gram stain is a differential stain. Wait 1-2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Report Findings and Make Recommendations VI. It was also understood that reaction of a bacterial cell to the Gram stain is determined by the decolourization step. Expt 7A Introduction to Staining Microorganisms 63 7B Smear Preparation and Simple Staining 67 7C Gram Stain 74 Tips for Staining 80 Acid-Fast Stain 81 10/6 Expt 8 Bacterial Growth Curve 83 Expt 9 Detection of Bacterial Contaminants in Food 90 Data Sheet for Expt 9 94 Identification of an Unknown Microbe 95. This technique is based on the fact that the gram-positive bacteria's cell wall has a stronger attraction for crystal violet, based on the presence of more peptidoglycan, then does the gram negative. Bacteria that stain purple with the Gram staining procedure are termed Gram-positive; those that stain pink are said to be Gram-negative. The investigators combined the routine Gram staining procedure of positive vials with the high sensitivity of the acridine orange staining, and inoculated positive media onto urea slants. aureus: –Gram stain –Catalase test –Coagulase test –DNAse test –Oxidase test 4. Waiting to hear about test results can be very stressful - and sometimes it can take a while to get lab results back. While both classes have an underlying phospholipid plasma membrane, the structure of the cellular wall varies greatly. Does anybody else's lab routinely run cell count and diff on what basically amounts to be pus? We have to do a 100x dilution and look at it on the hemacytometer, since it's usually so viscuous and full of WBCs that it won't even go into the chambers undiluted. For every action, there’s an equal and. Hendrickson 13 September 2017 Purpose For the purpose of the gram staining experiment was to learn this specific type of staining technique, as well as learn how distinguish the differences between Gram positive and Gram negative stains. The gram negative bacterium grew on the agar and a gram stain was carried out. One oral dosage rate that has proven effective in the field is 1. Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups: gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Prepare a Gram Stain using the cytocentrifuge. o Counterstaining (using Safranin). The Gram Stain and Differential Staining. Student Procedures. Method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups. culturing) or identifying (i. Although simple stains are useful, they do not reveal details about the bacteria other than morphology and arrangement. This is defined in number of days. Here, we report the improvement in performance by CL techs after 5 challenges. Discover Labster's award-winning virtual lab catalog with simulations in Biology, Chemistry, and more. The main focus of the Logan lab is the development of new renewable energy technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, for achieving an energy sustainable water infrastructure. It is called a differential stain since it differentiates between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Trichomonas is read by immediate wet mount and if negative, the culture pouch is inoculated. Brazil nut f. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS INTERNAL USE ONLY 9. van der Ende2,3 and D. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, qualitative) 4. Refrigerate until and during courier transport. Unformatted text preview: Eyram Ganu Gram Staining Introduction In this lab experiment, we were introduced to the technique of gram staining. On the first two challenges 77-73% of technicians read Gram staining correctly while morphology was read correctly by 56-53%. Gram Stain B. assay, which is designed to detect four of the most prevalent. Start studying Micro Lab - Report #15 - Gram Staining. Scrape lightly. Poor sample fixation. Step-by-step instructions and comparisons of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are provided to show viewers how to conduct the protocol. It is a primary test which quickly and cost effectively divides bacteria into one of two types: Gram-Positive or Gram-Negative. Out of a possible 70 points you will be graded as follows: Successfully performing the necessary tests to identify your unknown (25 pts): • Gram stain (verify with instructor) o morphology & arrangement • capsule stain • spore stain (only if Gram-negative). This gives rise to Gram-variable and Gram-indeterminate groups as well. Created Date: 8/5/2019 12:13:18 PM. At Biotium, our specialty is creating fluorescent dyes that simplify and improve your scientific experiments. Visual description of RBC morphology on a Romanowsky stain also provides useful diagnostic information. Bacterial culture and susceptibility testing – used to identify any bacteria that may be present in your pleural fluid and to guide antimicrobial therapy. This helps increase the sensitivity of both microscopy and culture. Wet prep 4. Maintaining an efficient and effective inventory management system ensures a reliable supply of laboratory commodities. Presence and appearance of special structures such as capsules and/or endospores. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Appendix C, Survey Procedures and Interpretive Guidelines for Laboratories and Laboratory Services. Place slide with heat fixed smear on staining tray. Box 305130, Nashville,TN 37230 (USPS) OR 630 Hart Lane, Nashville,TN 37216 (FedEx, UPS, courier delivery) Richard Steece, PhD, D(ABMM), Public Health Laboratory Director Main Line: (615) 262-6300. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Module: The Gram Stain Procedure - click “start lab” From a liquid culture, take a loopful of bacteria emulsify it in a small drop of water or saline on the slide. Student Procedures. Thermo Scientific Remel Gram Stain Kit is for qualitative procedures to differentiate gram-positive from gram-negative microorganisms. LAB 2: Staining and Streaking Protocols for Simple stain, Gram Stain, Streak Plate Technique and Culture Maintenance Lab 2a: INTRODUCTION To Staining Live specimens are difficult to see with the bright field microscope. It is called a differential stain since it differentiates between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Wait 1-2. We examined the accuracy of preliminary blood culture reports provided by a regional laboratory in an observational study including the years 1996, 2000 to 2001, and 2003. Gram was actually using dyes on human cells, and found that bacteria preferentially bind some dyes. It has been demonstrated to cause a wide variety of infections; however, it is most commonly recognized for its role as one of the organisms responsible for bacterial vaginosis (BV). Live or killed bacteria (gram-negative or gram-positive) can be stained with 12-15 ug/mL Hoechst or DAPI in PBS or 150 mM NaCl for 30 minutes at room temperature. A Gram stain of the fluid should be done and the results read as soon as possible. The Gram stain is the most widely used staining procedure in bacteriology. (Kits are available commercially, or formulas for reagents are listed in Appendix B. Giemsa stain is commonly used when there is need to examine the Blood smear for the Parasites but is a good stain for routine examination of blood smear and used to differentiate nuclear and cytoplasmic morphology of the various cells of the blood like Platelets, RBCs Giemsa Staining Technique. To begin: 1. This is defined in number of days. Finding antibiogram data by Gram Stain bucket. Christian Gram in 1884, and categorizes bacteria according to their Gram character (Gram positive or Gram negative). PDF files contains the procedure for a special stain, a procedure card, and sample container labels for the reagents. aureus Gram’s staining of the peritoneal fluid. Response to positive results. (2 pts) What difference between bacteria results in the differential staining observed in the Gram stain procedure? 4. It has to be one of the most repeated procedures done in any lab. Blood pressure was 115/43 mm Hg. DISCUSSION. Hendrickson 13 September 2017 Purpose For the purpose of the gram staining experiment was to learn this specific type of staining technique, as well as learn how distinguish the differences between Gram positive and Gram negative stains. bacteria that allows visualization of morphology (cocci, rods,. Many bacteria can be classified into one of two types: gram-positive, which show the stain and appear violet in color under a microscope, and gram-negative, which only show the counterstain, and appear red. Prepare a bacterial smear from a pure culture 1. The organism appeared bacillusshaped, stained purple in color and could either be arranged in chains or clusters. It is called a differential stain since it differentiates between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Simple Stain 4. Gram staining is a microbiologic procedure used to differentiate Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacteria. 2H 2 O) and 0. Candida albicans in a section of lung, confirming an invasive Candida pneumonia. Staining problems. Generally, MAC plates are pretty good about inhibiting the growth of Gram positive cells. (Kits are available commercially, or formulas for reagents are listed in Appendix B. txt) or read online for free. Staining Type # 3. Gram smears should be discarded in the autoclave bin 12. What is Gram Staining: Dr. Protocol: Pretreatment for Gram-Positive Bacteria. The isolated bacteria are stained by various methods depending upon the bacteria in focus. assay, which is designed to detect four of the most prevalent. The College of American Pathologists is the world's leading organization of board-certified pathologists. The reason for staining bacteria is due to the fact that most bacteria are transparent and cannot be seen through the microscope. The Gram-staining process discovered in 1882 (published 1884) by Hans Christian Gram, a Danish bacteriologist and plays an important role in the classifying the bacteria. The following scales are used to evaluate the sanitation process: a. The modified trichrome stain methods are based on the fact that stain penetration of the microsporidial spore is very difficult; thus, the dye content in the chromotrope 2R component of the formula is greater than that used to prepare Wheatley's modification of the Gomori's trichrome stain, and the staining time is much longer (90 min) (11, 12. Gram Staining Procedure/Protocol: Flood air-dried, heat-fixed smear of cells for 1 minute with crystal violet staining reagent. 0 mL from the test vessel in question to 40. It is essential that any culture and stain information about CSF be immediately telephoned or given to the physician so that therapy can be evaluated early. 8L 9296637 9317740 12/05/19 06/30/21 12/02/19 05/31/21 212539 BD BBLTM Gram Stain Kit 0007261 01/29/20 06/30/21 0007255 01/10/20 05/31/21 0028309 02/11/20 03/30/21 For the Attention of: Microbiology Lab Manager/Risk Manager Description of the problem and health hazard(s):. To ensure accuracy of interpretation, set up a system for reviewing Gram stain reports. Blotting paper. Flood with Gram's iodine - 180 seconds. After 18–24 h of incubation, growth was seen on the sheep blood agar plates. are readily killed by most commonly available disinfectants including hypochlorite solutions, 70% ethanol, isopropanol, iodophors, phenolic disinfectants, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and xylene. Confirm your staining protocols are controlled and efficient with prefixed quality control slides. The investigators combined the routine Gram staining procedure of positive vials with the high sensitivity of the acridine orange staining, and inoculated positive media onto urea slants. Correct use and care of the laboratory equipment is considered a fundamental part of good laboratory technique. o 3 PP= Look to Gram stain § Work up 2 PP if they are seen in the Gram stain § IF all 3 PP are seen in the Gram stain, MID all 3 • This is a simpler system­do not have to score the Gram stain first Advantages for “Q” Systems 1. Gram Stain All Categories Africa America American History Ancient Art Asia Biographies Book Reports Business Creative Writing Dance Economics English Europe History Humanities Literature Medicine Middle East Miscellaneous Music and Movies Philosophy Poetry & Poets Psychology Religion Science Shakespeare Social Issues Speeches Sports Technology. 4: Gram negative bacilli For liquid specimens e. 493;1200-1265. Also, be certain to report any intracellular bacteria observed. Cooling Towers, HVAC Systems, Individual Air Conditioning Units B. It is essential that any culture and stain information about CSF be immediately telephoned or given to the physician so that therapy can be evaluated early. 2018/2019. STI report from all specialized STI clinics Quarter 3 2012 Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 2Total number of visits for male patients Total Male 1802 1717 1642 Total MSM 1087 905 702 Total number of visits for low risk female patients 16708 17301 16897 Total number of first visits for non-brothel entertainment workers. Patient Specimens B. It has to be one of the most repeated procedures done in any lab. If specifically requested, perform Gram stain directly on unspun specimen. lw-56 2017 as america inc. Sputum and ETSAs with ≤10 SECs per LPF were considered to be adequate for Gram stain report and for culture, whereas those with >10 SECs per LPF were rejected. Report the case, suspected case and/or a positive laboratory result to the local public health department where the patient resides by the close of the next business day. Human Immunodeficiency HLA Donor Specific Antibody 86829 x2. The cells in your sample will be taken to a lab and put in a special environment in a lab to encourage cell growth. To identify our isolate after obtaining the pure culture, we performed many different tests. These Virtual Labs help students learn basic laboratory techniques and practice methods used by lab technicians and researchers in a variety of careers, using specific food science lab processes. Bone marrow aspirate showed an increased number of histiocytes phagocyting red cells and platelets. 2H 2 O) and 0. Specimen 2. Cooling Towers, HVAC Systems, Individual Air Conditioning Units B. Usually the growth is absent not just inhibited a little. Gram positive bacteria with mycolic acid are also called acid-fast bacteria because they require a special staining method, known as acid-fast staining, for microscope observation. Gram’s Stain is one of the most frequently used processes in identifying bacteria and is used daily in hospitals. This gives rise to Gram-variable and Gram-indeterminate groups as well. This is gram stain lab report absolutely gram stain lab report true, because we want to facilitate our clients as much as possible. Affiliations: 1: Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742; 2: currently residing in Matthews, NC 28104, formerly of Waukesha County Technical College, Pewaukee, WI, 53072. Rapid Strep A Antigen Test 5. The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique. , serogrouping). MOLECULAR TESTING 10. Procedures. The age of the patient is a clue to the technologist as to the possible agent causing the illness. The staining involves 3 major steps/processes that include: o Staining with crystal violet (a water soluble dye). Lab Report- Staining. LAB PROJECT #3: Differential Staining of Bacterial Cells Students prepare bacterial smears and preform Gram, Acid-fast (Ziehl-Neelsen), and Endospore Stains. The well-established method for manual microorganism identification to the species level, bioMérieux’s API identification products are test kits for identification of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and yeast. Unwittingly, in 1884, Christian Gram developed a staining regimen for light microscopy which differentiated between these two types of bacteria because of the chemical composition and structural format of their cell walls. Expected Gram stain. Gram staining was also conducted in the laboratory at Wilkins Hospital to diagnose candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Domestic Hot Water Systems Emergency Management and Best Practices C. 7%) of 8,253 patients with positive blood cultures the Gram stain was misread, resulting in major errors that fell into three categories: 1. Box 305130, Nashville,TN 37230 (USPS) OR 630 Hart Lane, Nashville,TN 37216 (FedEx, UPS, courier delivery) Richard Steece, PhD, D(ABMM), Public Health Laboratory Director Main Line: (615) 262-6300. The most common problems arising from use of rapid stain are 1) poor sample fixation 2) under-staining of the specimen 3) poor staining from use of weakened or exhausted stain or fixative and 4) stain contamination 5) excessive stain precipitation. From a liquid culture, take a loopful of bacteria emulsify it in a small drop of water or saline on the slide. The results showed leukopenia for which bone marrow. The Gram stain is a differential stain, as opposed. Be the First to Know. Module: The Gram Stain Procedure - click “start lab” From a liquid culture, take a loopful of bacteria emulsify it in a small drop of water or saline on the slide. 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244. Quality assurance and general laboratory procedures 69 Microbiological media, reagents and chemicals 71 receiving microbiological samples 77 Handling and preparation of microbiological samples 81 Microbiological identification using traditional and commercial methods 87 Gram stain and primary characterisation tests 91 Use of autoclaves 99. o gram-negative diplococci seen on Gram stain of CSF; or o N. If dimorphic fungus or cryptococcus specifically requested, see Mycology Manual for staining and interpretation. On the first two challenges 77-73% of technicians read Gram staining correctly while morphology was read correctly by 56-53%. Interperetive Results VERIFIED/REPORTED DATES Procedure Accession Collected Recieved Verified/Reported Respiratory Culture and Gram Stain 16-059-101174 2/28/2016 8:39:00 AM 2/28/2016 11:27:42 AM 2/28/2016 8:39:00 AM END OF CHART. Purpose: is to determine the Gram stain of your bacterial sample. This is the main page for the Gram Stain & Isolation Streak Plate Laboratory Topic of an 8-week introductory college microbiology class. For Gram Stain, Culture & Sensitivity, refer to specific culture type: Bacterial culture Anaerobic culture – proper specimen collection and rapid processing are essential, only certain specimen types are suitable for anaerobic culture, i. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Field Size Calculation / Cell Size Estimation (Video) Unit 3. 0 mL of fresh test media. W/Th, September 2/3, 2020. Gram staining differentiates bacteria by the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls. lw-56 2017 as america inc. Figure 1: The Smart ass behind it all, Mr. o De-colorization (using ethanol/acetone). Use the SCANNING objective to focus. Identification of an Unknown Bacterium and Writing Up a Report A standard part of nearly all lab courses in introductory microbiology is an activity wherein the student must use everything that has been learned in the course to identify and unknown bacterial culture. Cooling Towers, HVAC Systems, Individual Air Conditioning Units B. Sputum and ETSAs with ≤10 SECs per LPF were considered to be adequate for Gram stain report and for culture, whereas those with >10 SECs per LPF were rejected. Response to positive results. It is used to distinguish between gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria. Finding antibiogram data by Gram Stain bucket. Simple and Gram Staining of Bacteria. DISCUSSION. Sample must be received into the microbiology laboratory within 24 hours of collection. It is called a differential stain since it differentiates between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Being Gram-negative bacteria, E. It was developed by Hans Christian Gram; a Danish physician, in 1884. Assessment One week after the study interventions, the participants took an 11-question quiz ( S1 Quiz ), which assessed their understanding of Gram stain procedure, its significance, and interpretation. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Gram staining is a microbiologic procedure used to differentiate Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacteria. Growth at different temperatures was observed in MRS broth after incubation at 10°C and 15°C for 14 days and at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45,. If staining with Giemsa (as a thin film), after the film is completely dry, fix it by dipping the slide into absolute methanol, and allow the film to air dry in a vertical position. Scrape lightly. Anaerobic and Aerobic Culture with Gram Stain Comment: Sites submitting specimens for testing must be approved by the Epidemiology Program at the Department of Health and Human Services Regulation and Licensure. Most isolates of Nocardia are acid fast by modified Kinyoun technique that differentiates it from Actinomyces which is not acid fast. Monospot Test 2. Gram stain and bacterial morphology: Of all the different classification systems, the Gram stain has withstood the test of time. MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES: An inoculated slant labeled Unknown #545 was issued for identification. HiMedia is a trusted name in the field of scientific and laboratory equipment around the globe. pdf from BIOL 3011 at Brooklyn College, CUNY. Smear preparations that are too thick c. Laboratory perspective of gram staining and its significance in investigations of infectious diseases Yunusa Thairu 1, Idris Abdullahi Nasir 1, Yahaya Usman 2 1 Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria 2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. If the PDF does not display below, you may also download it here. along with the unknown to make sure that the Gram stain reaction was done correctly. HLA Class II Antibody Specificity Phenotype Panel 86831.
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